William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “‘Muerto por Unos Desconocidos (Killed by people Unknown)’:…
… Mob Violence against African Americans and Mexican Americans, ” in Beyond monochrome: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender when you look at the U.S. Southern and Southwest, ed. Stephanie Cole and Allison Parker (College facility, 2004), 35–74; William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “A Dangerous Experiment: The Lynching of Rafael Benavides, ” New Mexico Historical Review, 80 (Summer 2005), 265–92. For the runetki3 Texas research study, see Nicholas Villaneuva Jr., “‘Sincerely Yours for Dignified Manhood’: Lynching, Violence, and United states Manhood during the first many years of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1914, ” Journal for the western, 49 (cold weather 2010), 41–48. The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles and the Massacre of 1871 (New York, 2012) on mob violence against “racial others” in the West, see, for example, Pfeifer, Rough Justice, 86–88; Pfeifer, Roots of Rough Justice, 46–50; and Scott Zesch. Regarding the lynching of 29 Sicilians, another cultural team regarded as racially various within the postbellum Southern, see Clive Webb, “The Lynching of Sicilian Immigrants into the American South, 1886–1910, ” American Nineteenth Century History, 3 (springtime 2002), 45–76. In the lynching of Sicilians in Colorado, see Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919 (Boulder, 2002), 135–42.
Christopher Waldrep, the countless Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in the us (nyc, 2002); Christopher Waldrep, ed., Lynching in the usa: a past history in papers (nyc, 2006); Christopher Waldrep, African People in america Confront Lynching: techniques of opposition through the Civil War towards the Civil Rights period (Lanham, 2008); William D. Carrigan and Christopher Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath: Lynching in Global Historical attitude (Charlottesville, 2013). Jonathan Markowitz, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory (Minneapolis, 2004), xxxi. On lynching within the context of Jim Crow culture, see Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The customs of Segregation into the Southern, 1890–1940 (nyc, 1998), 199–238. For analyses of literary and artistic representations of lynching through the belated nineteenth through the mid-twentieth hundreds of years, see Jacqueline Goldsby, the Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American Life and Literature (Chicago, 2006); and Sandy Alexandre, The qualities of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson, 2012). For narratives of southern and vigilantism that is western lynching, see Lisa Arellano, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and country (Philadelphia, 2012). For lynching into the context for the Protestant tradition for the postbellum American South, see Donald G. Mathews, “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice: Lynching into the United states South, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 62 (Winter–Spring 2008), 27–70. Amy Louise Wood, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, 2009), 14. Fury, dir. Fritz Lang ( mgm, 1936); The Ox-Bow Incident, dir. William Wellman (Twentieth Century Fox, 1943). On lynching within the people tradition of new york’s reduced Piedmont, see Bruce E. Baker, “North Carolina Lynching Ballads, ” in less than Sentence of Death, ed. Brundage, 219–46. On lynching in belated nineteenth- and early twentieth-century black colored theater, see Koritha Mitchell, coping with Lynching: African American Lynching has, Efficiency, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Urbana, 2012). Sherrilyn A. Ifill, regarding the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty-First Century (Boston, 2007). For a residential district research that explored the long legacy of racially inspired lynchings in Marion, Indiana, in 1931, see James H. Madison, Lynching within the Heartland: Race and Memory in the us (nyc, 2001). For a synopsis of lynching in US culture, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching ( brand New Haven, 2012). For the argument that the end-of-lynching discourse will continue to contour and distort discussion of US mob violence, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, the termination of American Lynching (brand new Brunswick, 2012).
Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: ladies as well as the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). On African US women’s relationship to lynching, see Evelyn M. Simien, ed., Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory (nyc, 2011). For situation studies of lynchings of African US ladies in Georgia, Oklahoma, and sc, see Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner plus the Memory of Lynching (Athens, Ga., 2011); and Maria DeLongoria, “‘Stranger Fruit’: The Lynching of Ebony Women, The instances of Rosa Jefferson and Marie Scott” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Missouri–Columbia, 2006). For the journalistic remedy for the lynching of two African US couples in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, see Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: the final Mass Lynching in the us (ny, 2003). In the lynching of females and kids within the West, see Helen McLure, “‘I Suppose you imagine Strange the Murder of females and Children’: The US customs of Collective Violence, 1675–1930” (Ph.D. Diss., Southern Methodist University, 2009). For a summary of feminine lynching victims, see Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of females in the usa: The cases that are recorded 1851–1946 (Jefferson, 2010). Claude A. Clegg III, difficult Ground: an account of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning within the brand New Southern (Urbana, 2010); Terrence Finnegan, A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and sc, 1881–1940 (Charlottesville, 2013). On Mississippi’s respected record of racial mob violence, see Julius E. Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi: a past history, 1865–1965 (Jefferson, 2007). This Mob Will Surely Take My Life: Lynching in the Carolinas, 1871–1947 (London, 2008); and J. Timothy Cole, The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, North Carolina (Jefferson, 2003) on lynching in the Carolinas, see Bruce E. Baker.
Kidada E. Williams, They Left Great markings on me personally: African US Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I ( brand brand brand New York, 2012). On African American reactions to mob physical physical violence, see Karlos Hill, “Resisting Lynching: Ebony Grassroots reactions to Lynching into the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1882–1938” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Illinois, 2009).
Present scholarship, particularly that centered on civil liberties activism, has started to explore African American reactions to racial terror during the level that is local.
On black colored reactions to racial terror in fin-de-siecle Florida as well as in 1960s and 1970s Alabama and Mississippi, respectively, see Paul Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden reputation for Ebony Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction towards the Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley, 2006); Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Ebony energy in Alabama’s Ebony Belt (ny, 2010); and Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance within the Mississippi Freedom Movement (ny, 2013). Ifill, From The Courthouse Lawn, xix–xx. For the Senate apology, see Congressional Record, 109 Cong., 1 sess., June 13, 2005, p. S6364–88. For news protection associated with U.S. Senate apology see, for instance, Wendy Koch, “U.S. Senate Moves to Apologize for Injustice, ” usa Today, June 13, 2005; and Martin C. Evans, “An Apology for Old as a type of Terror: Senate Expects to Vote Tomorrow on Resolution regarding Its Failure to Help End Practice of Lynching, ” Newsday, June 12, 2005, p. A34. On efforts to memorialize lynchings in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1920 as well as in cost, Utah, in 1925, respectively, see Dora Apel, “Memorialization and its particular Discontents: America’s First Lynching Memorial, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 61 (Winter–Spring 2008); and Kimberley Mangun and Larry R. Gerlach, “Making Utah History: Press Coverage of this Robert Marshall Lynching, June 1925, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 143–47. The chains: In Montgomery, Ala., a Move to Remember Slavery Exactly Where It Happened, ” New York Times, Dec. 10, 2013, pp on an effort by Bryan Stevenson and the Equal Justice Initiative to erect memorials at lynching sites around the South, see Campbell Robertson, “Before the Battles and the protests. 17–18.
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